SUBSEA AND PIPELINES ENGINEERING CAPABILITIES
Feasibility, Concept Selection, Pre-FEED Studies
Atteris’ experienced concept engineers will screen and define concepts at an appropriate level of detail for each stage of project definition. A small 1-2 week study might support an exploration well’s economic case. A several months duration Pre-FEED study might assess a wide range of value opportunities before selecting a concept to progress to FEED.
Concept Screening Workshops
Atteris’ wide-ranging concept screening workshops, which tap-in to the combined wisdom and creativity of the client’s team and Atteris’ subject matter experts, ensure that all reasonable design concepts are considered at an early phase of concept definition. Working with client’s team, Atteris can facilitate concept workshops which brainstorm alternatives, perform SWOT analyses, and agree a short-list of concepts for further technical evaluation.
Conceptual Development Layouts
Atteris can prepare concept development layouts ranging from a dimensioned sketch of the new facilities, through to a suite of detailed development layouts, including drill centre layouts and riser approaches for offshore developments, and pipeline alignments for onshore waterway, road, and rail crossings. Atteris’ concept drawings are sufficiently detailed to define key concept differentiators, whilst limiting unnecessary drafting effort which is more efficiently done at a later phase of design, once the concept is better defined.
Analogue Project Review And Benchmarking
Atteris’ collective project experience, and its in-house database of worldwide project data, enables it to identify analogue projects which can give a client better confidence that a proposed concept is technically and economically robust, and ready to proceed to the next project phase.
Subsea Architecture Definition
Good subsea architecture selection depends upon good definition of the constraints. Subsurface and drilling constraints drive wellhead locations, dropped object constraints drive equipment spacing, installation vessel constraints limit equipment sizes, future flowlines corridors constrain the foundation project’s flowlines, spool material selection drives spool sizes, etc. Atteris has “been there and done that” on countless projects, and can consider all of these issues, and many more, to achieve the best life cycle value in its subsea architecture designs.
Subsea- Systems Engineering
Atteris’ study managers are highly experienced in understanding clients’ subsurface (reservoir and drilling) and facility constraints, and collaborating with client’s subsurface teams and facilities teams to optimise project value.
Atteris’ experience through all phases of a project, from concept through to execution and operation ensures we understand and can identify key technical decisions which require integrating into our concepts to ensure feasibility for future development.
ENGINEERING DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
Atteris’ flow assurance capabilities include:
- Fluid sampling and offshore testing program definition, in advance of an exploration or appraisal well
- Fluid laboratory testing program definition
- Fluid characterisation (PVTSim or Multiflash)
- Flow assurance strategy selection, considering all aspects such as liquids management, hydrate management, wax, emulsions, asphaltenes, scale, etc.
- Subsea processing process design (HYSYS)
- Steady state and transient multiphase pipeline modelling (PIPESIM / OLGA).
- Preparation of operating procedures.
Atteris has in-house expertise to assist our clients with a range of material selection/assessment issues and their protection against corrosion and erosion associated with subsea and onshore pipelines and related structures. Depending on the complexity of the subject, Atteris will engage recognised subject matter experts as required. This approach has proven to deliver the best results.
Our engineering expertise includes:
- Materials selection and engineering, including non-metallic, carbon steel and corrosion resistant alloys linepipe
- Corrosion and erosion assessments
- Welding engineering
- Internal and external coating systems for flow assurance, corrosion prevention, insulation, weight coating
- Cathodic protection design and assessments
- Specifications and datasheets
Subsea System Technical Integration
Systems Engineering considers the entire development’s performance, from the reservoir through to the cargo offtake, and ensures that each major system element remains fully integrated throughout the asset lifecycle. It can prevent the enormous costs associated with under-designed or over-design of an element, relative to the greater system.
Atteris’ Systems Engineering approach is to:
- Maintain overall Safety and risk engineering oversight, with a particular focus on issues across system element boundaries, where a “cause” in one system element might result in a consequence in another system element designed by another engineering team.
- Actively coordinate inter-discipline engineering (e.g. subsurface-subsea, or subsea-topsides, or topsides-onshore, and the like.)
- Actively coordinate interface engineering between design teams and between major system elements
- Consider the full asset lifecycle, to ensure system elements aren’t relatively under or over designed at various stages of asset life
Pipeline Route Survey Support
Atteris has a long track record of supporting our clients with any type of route survey for pipelines, flowlines, umbilicals and cables, including:
- Survey plans and strategies
- Planning, cost estimating
- Scopes of work and specifications
- Project management and contract administration
- Offshore and onshore survey support including shore and waterway crossings
- Geophysical and geotechnical surveys
On multiple projects, an experienced and competent engineer was present on the survey vessel with the necessary computer hardware and software to support the client, and to assist selecting and narrowing down pipeline route options.
Pipeline Route Selection
Analysis selecting the most cost-effective route for pipelines, umbilicals and cables is arguably one of the most important decisions for your pipeline design for both offshore and onshore. Atteris employs engineers with the necessary expertise to select the best possible route for your assets.
Metocean, Geological and Geotechnical Assessments
Atteris has the in-house capabilities to undertake most metocean, geological and geotechnical engineering-related work. Atteris employs engineers with significant expertise in effectively managing specialist consultants in these fields for the more complex assessments and studies in these disciplines.
Pipeline Mechanical Design
Atteris has the capability and experience to perform mechanical design for all aspects of pipeline systems including:
- Onshore and offshore pipelines
- All pipeline sizes from large diameter trunklines to small diameter flowlines
- Deep and shallow water
- End connections including tie-in spools and risers
- Design in accordance with various codes including DNVGL, API, AS and ASME
- Materials selection and engineering, including non-metallic, carbon steel and corrosion resistant alloys linepipe, welding engineering, internal and external coating systems for flow assurance, corrosion prevention, insulation, weight coating
- Cathodic protection systems (impressed current and galvanic anode systems).
- Engineering criticality assessments (ECAs)
Pipeline Stabilisation Design
Atteris has pioneered a large number of innovative hydrodynamic stabilisation designs and methodologies for pipelines and related infrastructure, such as:
- On-bottom stability engineering assessments taking into account seabed instability processes such as scour and liquefaction
- Secondary stabilisation designs using rock bolts, rubble mound structures (rock berms) and gravity anchors
- Pipeline sheltering using pre-trenching and post trenching techniques
Between 2006 and 2010, Atteris, in conjunction with the University of Western Australia (UWA) and with support from Woodside Energy, pioneered the development of a more realistic pipeline on-bottom stability methodology, which takes into account the often complex seabed material local scour and liquefaction processes along pipelines. As part of a project, which assessed the hydrodynamic stability of a large diameter gas trunkline, Atteris convinced Woodside and UWA to undertake large scale model testing as a world first, to simulate the complex interaction between the movement of the water, the pipeline and the seabed material. This resulted in the development, construction and commissioning of the O-tube laboratory testing facility, which has been used multiple times since by Atteris to simulate the behaviour of pipelines, flowlines, umbilicals, rock berms, and concrete and steel mattresses under extreme hydrodynamic loading.
Safety and Risk Assessments
Atteris support’s its clients in performing safety and risk assessments (HAZOPS / HAZIDS) related to our designs and the associated construction activities, or as a consultant to your designs and operations. We have a proud track record of considering safety and risk in design and striving to maximise the inherent safety and demonstrate certainty in risk of the designs we produce. Our knowledge and experience of design, construct, and operated (IMMR) is a valuable asset to these processes.
Support to Project Approvals
Atteris has a long track record in effectively supporting project developers with environmental and regulatory approvals. Engineering support can be provided for:
- Offshore and onshore environmental impact statements
- Sea dumping permits
- Consent to construct applications
- Right of Way (ROW)
- Safety cases
- Attendance at meetings with government and regulators
- Pipeline licenses
Package Management and Project Engineering
Atteris has engineering professionals with significant expertise in project management and construction support. This includes:
- Development of tendering and contracting strategies
- Preparation of ITT documentation, such as contracts, pricing schedules, scopes of work, specifications and drawings
- Review of tender submissions
- Package management, project management, contract administration and construction supervision
- Project close-out reports
Atteris has in house expertise and software to perform installation analysis for pipelay, flexlay, umbilical lay, pull-ins, pull-outs, pipe-push, mechanical connection make-up, structure deployment etc. As well as performing high level studies to confirm installability of proposed designs in the early stages of projects, Atteris has on a number of occasions performed detailed installation analysis on behalf of construction and installation contractors.
Cost and Schedule Estimates
Atteris has advanced systems, comprehensive cost and schedule database and significant expertise in relation to the preparation of cost estimates and schedules for pipeline projects. Cost estimating and schedules can be performed deterministic as well as probabilistic, taking into account design, construction and fabrication, and commercial risks.
Atteris has a successful track record of supporting our clients in the field during construction activities, in particular where this involves overseeing the construction and / or installation of Atteris designed solutions. We have a firm belief that this serves the client in ensuring that no aspect of the design is overlooked in the construction stage, while also exposing our engineers to field operations and thus constantly improving our ability to ensure our designs can be efficiently constructed and installed.
Construction Method Development and Review
Construction and execution experience is a valuable part of a design engineer’s development. At Atteris we recognise this fact and have made this part of our development program for our engineers. Most of our engineers have a strong construction background, which we draw upon to develop and review construction methodologies, often running internal workshops to ensure the most constructible designs. Understanding construction methodologies early in your project phases will reduce risk of cost and schedule overrun during execution, maintaining project value.
Atteris understands Regulatory Compliance and can assist / manage the assembly of evidence required to demonstrate compliance in addition to performing engineering assessment as required. Atteris also has expertise in effectively managing regulatory compliance specialists for more complex submissions.
ASSET AND INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT
IMMR Engineering and Support
Inspection, Monitoring, Maintenance and Repair (IMMR) activities are cornerstone to successful risk management of a subsea or pipeline asset. Risk based IMM plans and practical Emergency Response and Repair plans and procedures help to facilitate effective management of operational risks. We take a practical approach to IMMR engineering taking into consideration any project and location specific variables, including realistic constraints that part of every operation. We can provide ad-hoc, short term or long term support to any execution phase. As the operations mature, we can also assist with reviews and updates; to ensure that plans and procedures remain relevant and to integrate improvements that will result in a reduction of cost, time and/or risk to the operation.
The key to maintaining integrity of a subsea and pipeline asset is with understanding the risks that are applicable. Risk assessments can be performed to define the applicable damage mechanism and level of risk, which is determined by assessing the likelihood and consequence of damage occurring through each applicable mechanism. This is forms the basis of an effective integrity management program to manage the known risks. As the operations mature, we can also asset with reviews and updates; to ensure that the risk assessment remains relevant and to integrate improvements that will result in a reduction of cost, time and/or risk to the operation.
Integrity Management System Design
An effectively designed and implemented integrity management system is the backbone to successful management of a subsea or pipeline asset. Our practical approach takes into account the systems, policies and operating philosophy of your operations. The focus is on delivering a bespoke solution that addresses the organisations key drivers, and takes into account the practical constraints of the organisation, project or operating location. As the operations mature, we can also asset with reviews and updates; to ensure that system remains relevant and to integrate improvements that will result in a reduction of cost, time and/or risk to the operation.
Intervention and Retrofit Design
Intervention and retrofit design includes design for repair, to ensure that your subsea or pipeline asset can continue to be fit for service. Our focus is to deliver bespoke engineering solutions that fit our client’s key drivers. The approach we take is highly practical and has consistently proven to deliver cost, time or risk reduction to our clients. We can provide ad-hoc, short term or long term practical engineering support to any execution phase (survey, site preparation, client representation) and can develop intervention and retrofit designs from concept through to detailed design and installation method. We take a holistic approach in ensuring that the design solution is also practical to implement and able to be inspected or monitored through life, to determine the success of intervention works and for long-term integrity assurance.
Fitness for Service Engineering
During the operational life of an asset, IMM activities will return condition reports on the subsea or pipeline asset, including reports on anomalies that have been identified. Fitness for service engineering assessment is focused on determining whether action needs to be taken to address the anomalies to maintain long term integrity of the asset. Remaining life assessments can be performed so that a proactive response can be developed to adequately monitor and maintain any anomalies that have been identified.
Life Extension Assessments
Life extension assessments, also known as design requalification assessments, comprises of a full integrity review of your subsea or pipeline system at the end of its design life; for the purpose of extending its operating life through proving fitness for continued service. The assessment is performed in accordance with international guidelines and takes a bespoke approach, depending on the current condition of your asset, its operating history and projected operating requirements. Services include technical assessment, commercial assessments and facilitation with the regulatory bodies. We can also assist with developing and revising new or existing IMM plans and procedures; to support the life extension process. For assets with little existing operating data, Atteris steps outside of the box to take practical and novel approaches with its engineering in order to demonstrate and realise your life extension requirements.
At the end of an asset’s lifecycle, the decision to suspend or abandon must be made. To facilitate the decision making process, decommissioning studies can be performed to guide your operations through the technical, commercial and regulatory requirements for either option. We can provide ad-hoc, short term or long term practical engineering support from decommissioning concept studies, engineering assessment for support of concept, decommissioning storyboards, site support, and package management for decommissioning of your subsea and pipeline projects.
CORUS 3D is an Atteris proprietary finite element analysis software used for the on-bottom stability assessment of subsea pipelines, flowlines, umbilicals and cables under wave and current loading over time. This dynamic on-bottom stability analysis software has been wholly developed by Atteris and has since been independently analysed and validated by DNV-GL. CORUS 3D is a powerful software package which has a track record of delivering reliable, robust and cost-effective engineering designs for subsea pipelines.
Abaqus FEA is a Finite Element Analysis package used for the modelling of sophisticated engineering problems involving statics, dynamics, multibody systems, impact, nonlinear statics, thermal couplings etc. The software uses integrated solver technology to achieve best-in-class results which reduces engineering time allowing for efficient processing and more time spent for analysis and optimisation.
Abaqus CFD is a Computational Fluid Dynamics package for the the modelling and assessment of nonlinear coupled fluid-thermal and fluid-structural problems. Modelling of laminar and turbulent: internal or external flows that are steady-state or transient, span a broad Reynolds number range, and involve complex geometry is all within the software’s capabilities. Atteris uses Abaqus CFD for the assessment of subsea heat exchanges to determine efficiencies in design as well as hydrodynamic coefficients for complex structures and increases in shear stress due to flow amplification.
Microstation is a 2D, 3D, CAD modelling system used for drafting and rendering of engineering design.
AutoPIPE is a piping, spool, and riser design and analysis software that incorporates the guidelines and design limits of DNV, ISO, ASME / ANSI, API and other international design codes. AutoPIPE allows for the assessment of static and dynamic stress analysis on pressurised linepipe for combinations of functional, seismic, wave, current, wind, buoyancy, and transient loadings. AutoPIPE also features the ability to model basic structural elements thus providing a more realistic boundary condition at restraints. For complex structural integration, AutoPIPE can incorporate structural models built in STAAD.Pro for further design optimisation of restraints and adjoining structures.
12D software allows for modelling of terrain, earthworks and the design of pipeline alignments and infrastructure, for engineering, construction and mapping purposes. With accurate 3D modelling, the software has capability to allow for walk through inspections of the design to identify interference during design or presentation of concepts and designs to stakeholders.