Stabilizing large diameter natural gas pipelines on the seabed against extreme hydrodynamic loading conditions has proven to be challenging in the northwest of Australia. Tropical storms, which affect the area annually between November and April, can generate wave heights exceeding 30 m and onbottom steady-state currents of 2 m/s or more. Consequently, in shallow water […]
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Although empirical methods exist for the design of submerged rock berm structures, significant optimisation may be achieved through physical model testing. This paper outlines the 2D and 3D physical modelling undertaken to optimise the design berm dimensions and armour size for a berm structure require for protection of hydrocarbon pipelines. The return period conditions tested […]
The conventional approach to submarine pipeline stability design considers interactions between water and pipeline (fluid-pipe) and pipeline and seabed (pipe-soil). The seabed is typically assumed hydrodynamically stable in this approach. Interactions between the water and the seabed (fluid-soil) are generally considered only as an afterthought. A new approach for assessing the stability of submarine pipelines […]
An insight is provided into the design of a large diameter high pressure gas pipeline shore approach for an LNG project off the coast of North Western Australia. The shore approach is located in a challenging and congested area, within one of Australia’s busiest ports. In close proximity to the pipeline route are two existing […]
Apache Energy Limited is developing the Reindeer gas field that is located on the Northwest Shelf of Western Australia. The project is a joint venture between Apache Energy and Santos, with 40% of the gas intended for domestic use and the remainder contracted to Chinese group Citic Pacific. The development includes a 102 km long, […]
Dean Campbell, Engineering Manager and Tom Seeber, Senior Engineer, Atteris Pty Ltd, explain how the pipeline shore approach for the Pluto LNG Project was completed successfully and on time.