SUBSEA AND PIPELINES ENGINEERING CAPABILITIES
Feasibility, Concept Selection, Pre-FEED Studies
Atteris’ experienced concept engineers will screen and define concepts at an appropriate level of detail for each stage of project definition. A small 1-2 week study might support an exploration well’s economic case. A several months duration Pre-FEED study might assess a wide range of value opportunities before selecting a concept to progress to FEED.
Concept Screening Workshops
Atteris’ wide-ranging concept screening workshops, which tap-in to the combined wisdom and creativity of the client’s team and Atteris’ subject matter experts, ensure that all reasonable design concepts are considered at an early phase of concept definition. Working with client’s team, Atteris can facilitate concept workshops which brainstorm alternatives, perform SWOT analyses, and agree a short-list of concepts for further technical evaluation.
Conceptual Development Layouts
Atteris can prepare concept development layouts ranging from a dimensioned sketch of the new facilities, through to a suite of detailed development layouts, including drill centre layouts and riser approaches for offshore developments, and pipeline alignments for onshore waterway, road, and rail crossings. Atteris’ concept drawings are sufficiently detailed to define key concept differentiators, whilst limiting unnecessary drafting effort which is more efficiently done at a later phase of design, once the concept is better defined.
Analogue Project Review And Benchmarking
Atteris’ collective project experience, and its in-house database of worldwide project data, enables it to identify analogue projects which can give a client better confidence that a proposed concept is technically and economically robust, and ready to proceed to the next project phase.
Subsea- Systems Engineering
Atteris’ study managers are highly experienced in understanding clients’ subsurface (reservoir and drilling) and facility constraints, and collaborating with client’s subsurface teams and facilities teams to optimise project value.
Atteris’ experience through all phases of a project, from concept through to execution and operation ensures we understand and can identify key technical decisions which require integrating into our concepts to ensure feasibility for future development.
Subsea and Pipeline Preliminary Design
Atteris’ core strengths in Subsea Umbilical Riser and Facilities (SURF) and offshore and onshore pipeline design ensure fundamental engineering areas are fully appreciated during the concept definition phase, resulting in robust, constructible and operational development concept options.
Installation and Construction Strategies
Atteris will always strive for designs with the lowest installed / constructed cost without undue sacrifice of integrity. This is achieved by first understanding the installation vessel / equipment capabilities in the region, and then designing flowlines / pipelines and equipment which are installable by a range of contractors, to ensure competitive installation and construction bids during the execution phase.
Safety & Risk Engineering
Safety in design is a key consideration at all phases of Atteris’ concept design and definition. Atteris can facilitate risk reviews and preliminary HAZID workshops at a concept design level. Atteris study managers are highly experienced in effectively managing specialist safety & risk consultants for the more complex or rigorous assessments and studies such as HAZOPs, subsea consequence modelling, dropped object risk analysis, quantitative risk analysis, safety bow tie diagrams, etc.
Schedule & Cost Estimates
Atteris’ in-house database enables rapid and accurate estimation of subsea developments’ CAPEX, OPEX and execution schedules. Atteris is experienced in working with client’s economic team so that CAPEX and OPEX spend profiles can seamlessly integrate into client’s economic analysis.
Value Improvement Practices
VIP workshops can add immense value to a development during the early design phases. Atteris’ VIP workshops typically would involve key client personnel and Atteris subject experts, and the workshop would systematically:
- Attain common alignment of the project, and the exact VIP workshop process (project specific)
- Review critical project drivers
- Review major development value drivers and seek value challenges as appropriate
- Identify key project risks
- Rank new and existing value or risk opportunities
- Agree follow up action plans and responsibilities
Scope Definition Of Next Design Phase
Once the highest value concept is identified, Atteris can assist its clients to define the scopes of work for the next phase of design which will maximise value, and also prevent value-erosion as the concept matures.
ENGINEERING DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
Auger Boring and Micro-tunnelling
Supplementing our other trenchless expertise of HDD engineering and design, Atteris also has strong and matured capability in the application and design of Auger Boring and Micro-tunnelling. Atteris has challenged conventional shore and water way crossing designs using traditional high environmental impact solutions of cut and cover with trenchless techniques; employing the use of micro-tunnelling to provide our clients with a low environmental impact solution which has proven to have high cost and schedule certainty. These award winning designs have featured tunnels as long as 4.4km in length and diameters of up to 3m. Atteris can support your trenchless project from concept feasibility assessment through to detailed design.
Stabilitisation and Protection Design
Atteris has pioneered a large number of innovative hydrodynamic stabilisation and external impact protection designs and methodologies for pipelines and related infrastructure, such as:
- On-bottom stability engineering assessments taking into account seabed instability processes such as scour and liquefaction
- Secondary stabilisation designs using rock bolts, rubble mound structures (rock berms) and gravity anchors
- Pipeline sheltering using pre-trenching (dredging) and post trenching techniques
- External impact protection designs using rubble mound structures and sand backfilled trenches
Between 2007 and 2010, Atteris, in conjunction with the University of Western Australia, pioneered the development of the O-tube laboratory testing facility, which has been used multiple times since by Atteris to simulate the behaviour of pipelines, flowlines, umbilicals, rock berms, and concrete and steel mattresses under extreme hydrodynamic loading.
Subsea Structures and Manifolds
Atteris’s engineers can perform basic design of subsea structures and manifolds, including in-line tee structures, PLEMs and PLETs. Piping stress analysis is performed in-house. Atteris has expertise in effectively managing specialist structural design consultants for the more complex assessments and studies such as detailed structural analysis (SACS or GTStrudl software) and 3-D drafting (3D CAD or Solidworks).
Materials Selection and CP Design
Atteris has in house expertise to assist our clients with a range of materials selection issues associated with the design of subsea and onshore pipelines and structures. These include:
- Materials selection
- Corrosion assessments
- Coating selection
- Specifications and datasheets for materials, coatings
- Cathodic protection design.
Dynamic Riser Systems Global Analysis and Definition
Atteris has expertise in effectively managing specialist dynamic riser analysis consultants for the more complex assessments and studies in these disciplines, such as static riser analysis, global dynamic riser analysis and definition of dynamic risers’ ancillary structures.
Shore Approach and Shore Crossing Design
Atteris is the recognised leader for the design of shore approaches and shoreline crossings in Australia since 1999, and has left a legacy of innovative and cost-effective designs, based on conventional open cut and cover, horizontal directional drilling and tunnelling. Well known projects, many of which have won an Engineering Excellence Award from The Institution of Engineers Australia, include: TSEP, Otway Gas Project, Gorgon, Wheatstone, Pluto, Reindeer/Devil Creek, Macedon, Alkimos (ocean outfall), Cliff Head, to name a few. Outside of Australia, Atteris has been involved in the design of shore crossing projects in New Zealand, Indonesia, Taiwan, Singapore, and the USA.
Atteris has in-house expertise and software to perform Finite Element Analysis for bespoke engineering problems including but not limited to; pipeline installation, dynamic on-bottom stability analysis, lateral and upheaval buckling, pipeline spans including static and modal analysis, umbilical and pipeline pull-in and pull-out assessments, and solid modelling of pipelines for impact assessment, local buckling and local strength checks due to corrosion and or defects, and many more applications.
Atteris has in-house expertise and software to perform Computational Fluid Dynamics to assess the flow characteristics of fluid around submerged structures on the seabed. This may include analysis of hydrodynamic coefficients around piggy-backed pipeline systems, determination of increased shear stressed around large structures or flow characteristic over rockberms and for seabed scour assessments. CFD can also be used to assess thermal convection currents for the assessment of subsea active and passive subsea cooling skids / heat exchangers.
Global and Local Buckling Pipeline Response
Atteris has engineering professionals with the ability to undertake global and local buckling analysis and mitigation system design for pipelines. High level study is performed to determine susceptibility of pipelines and flowlines to buckling followed by evaluation to determine if a buckling mitigation strategy is required. Designs consider through life changes in reservoir performance and transient operating procedures with respect to ongoing IMMR costs.
Subsea Architecture Definition
Good subsea architecture selection depends upon good definition of the constraints. Subsurface and drilling constraints drive wellhead locations, dropped object constraints drive equipment spacing, installation vessel constraints limit equipment sizes, future flowlines corridors constrain the foundation project’s flowlines, spool material selection drives spool sizes, etc. Atteris has “been there and done that” on countless projects, and can consider all of these issues, and many more, to achieve the best life cycle value in its subsea architecture designs.
Flow Assurance (steady state and transient analyses, fluid testing definition, fluid characterisation)
Atteris’ flow assurance capabilities include:
- Fluid sampling and offshore testing program definition, in advance of an exploration or appraisal well
- Fluid laboratory testing program definition
- Fluid characterisation (PVTSim or Multiflash)
- Flow assurance strategy selection, considering all aspects such as liquids management, hydrate management, wax, emulsions, asphaltenes, scale, etc.
- Subsea processing process design (HYSYS)
- Steady state and transient multiphase pipeline modelling (PIPESIM / OLGA).
- Preparation of operating procedures.
Subsea Systems Technical Integration
Systems Engineering considers the entire development’s performance, from the reservoir through to the cargo offtake, and ensures that each major system element remains fully integrated throughout the asset lifecycle. It can prevent the enormous costs associated with under-designed or over-design of an element, relative to the greater system.
Atteris’ Systems Engineering approach is to:
- Maintain overall Safety and risk engineering oversight, with a particular focus on issues across system element boundaries, where a “cause” in one system element might result in a consequence in another system element designed by another engineering team.
- Actively coordinate inter-discipline engineering (e.g. subsurface-subsea, or subsea-topsides, or topsides-onshore, etc.)
- Actively coordinate interface engineering between design teams and between major system elements
- Consider the full asset lifecycle, to ensure system elements aren’t relatively under or over designed at various stages of asset life
Pipeline Route Survey Support
Atteris has a long track record of supporting our clients with any type of route survey for pipelines, flowlines, umbilicals and cables, including:
- Planning and cost estimating
- Survey plans and strategies
- Scopes of work and specifications
- Project management and contract administration
- Offshore and onshore survey support including shore and waterway crossings
- Geophysical surveys
- Geotechnical surveys
Metocean, Geological and Geotechnical Assessment
Atteris has the in-house capabilities to undertake most metocean, geological and geotechnical engineering-related work. Atteris employs engineers with significant expertise in effectively managing specialist consultants in these fields for the more complex assessments and studies in these disciplines.
Route Selection and Bottom Roughness Analysis
Analysis selecting the most cost-effective route for pipelines, umbilicals and cables is arguably one of the most important decisions for your pipeline design for both offshore and onshore. Atteris employs engineers with the necessary expertise to select the best possible route for your assets. Atteris uses the best software package available in the market to undertake bottom roughness assessments: Sage Profile 3D (www.sage-profile.com)
Pipeline Mechanical Design
Atteris has the capability and experience to perform mechanical design for all aspects of pipelines including:
- All pipeline sizes from large diameter trunklines to small diameter flowlines
- Deep and shallow water
- Onshore pipelines
- All project phases from broad brush conceptual studies to detailed analysis
- End connections including tie-in spools, risers
- Design in accordance with various codes including DNV, API, AS and ASME
- Corrosion resistant alloys
- Design covering conventional pipeline solutions and more complicated scenarios requiring innovative bespoke solutions
Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD)
Atteris’ engineering and design roots lie within the application of HDD to enable routing of pipelines and outfalls in challenging areas, often saving clients significant development costs in addition to the reducing environmental impact and increasing schedule certainty thus minimising project risk. Atteris’ vast experience has led us to be first in class and has seen us design and manage HDDs up to 1850m in length. Our knowledge and experience in this area make us experts in this field.
Safety and Risk Assessments
Atteris support’s its clients in performing safety and risk assessments (HAZOPS / HAZIDS) related to our designs and the associated construction activities, or as a consultant to your designs and operations. We have a proud track record of considering safety and risk in design and striving to maximise the inherent safety and demonstrate certainty in risk of the designs we produce. Our knowledge and experience of design, construct, and operated (IMMR) is a valuable asset to these processes.
Support to Project Approvals
Atteris has a long track record in effectively supporting project developers with environmental and regulatory approvals. Engineering support can be provided for:
- Offshore and onshore environmental impact statements
- Sea dumping permits
- Consent to construct applications
- Right of Way (ROW)
- Safety cases
- Attendance at meetings with government and regulators
- Pipeline licenses
Package Management and Project Engineering
Atteris has engineering professionals with significant expertise in project management and construction support. This includes:
- Development of tendering and contracting strategies
- Preparation of ITT documentation, such as contracts, pricing schedules, scopes of work, specifications and drawings
- Review of tender submissions
- Package management, project management, contract administration and construction supervision
- Project close-out reports
Atteris has in house expertise and software to perform installation analysis for pipelay, flexlay, umbilical lay, pull-ins, pull-outs, pipe-push, mechanical connection make-up, structure deployment etc. As well as performing high level studies to confirm installability of proposed designs in the early stages of projects, Atteris has on a number of occasions performed detailed installation analysis on behalf of construction and installation contractors.
Cost and Schedule Estimates
Atteris has advanced systems, comprehensive cost and schedule database and significant expertise in relation to the preparation of cost estimates and schedules for pipeline projects. Cost estimating and schedules can be performed deterministic as well as probabilistic, taking into account design, construction and fabrication, and commercial risks.
Atteris has a successful track record of supporting our clients in the field during construction activities, in particular where this involves overseeing the construction and / or installation of Atteris designed solutions. We have a firm belief that this serves the client in ensuring that no aspect of the design is overlooked in the construction stage, while also exposing our engineers to field operations and thus constantly improving our ability to ensure our designs can be efficiently constructed and installed.
Construction Method Development and Review
Construction and execution experience is a valuable part of a design engineer’s development. At Atteris we recognise this fact and have made this part of our development program for our engineers. Most of our engineers have a strong construction background, which we draw upon to develop and review construction methodologies, often running internal workshops to ensure the most constructible designs. Understanding construction methodologies early in your project phases will reduce risk of cost and schedule overrun during execution, maintaining project value.
Atteris understands Regulatory Compliance and can assist / manage the assembly of evidence required to demonstrate compliance in addition to performing engineering assessment as required. Atteris also has expertise in effectively managing regulatory compliance specialists for more complex submissions.
ASSET AND INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT
IMMR Engineering and Support
Inspection, Monitoring, Maintenance and Repair (IMMR) activities are cornerstone to successful risk management of a subsea or pipeline asset. Risk based IMM plans and practical Emergency Response and Repair plans and procedures help to facilitate effective management of operational risks. We take a practical approach to IMMR engineering taking into consideration any project and location specific variables, including realistic constraints that part of every operation. We can provide ad-hoc, short term or long term support to any execution phase. As the operations mature, we can also assist with reviews and updates; to ensure that plans and procedures remain relevant and to integrate improvements that will result in a reduction of cost, time and/or risk to the operation.
The key to maintaining integrity of a subsea and pipeline asset is with understanding the risks that are applicable. Risk assessments can be performed to define the applicable damage mechanism and level of risk, which is determined by assessing the likelihood and consequence of damage occurring through each applicable mechanism. This is forms the basis of an effective integrity management program to manage the known risks. As the operations mature, we can also asset with reviews and updates; to ensure that the risk assessment remains relevant and to integrate improvements that will result in a reduction of cost, time and/or risk to the operation.
Integrity Management System Design
An effectively designed and implemented integrity management system is the backbone to successful management of a subsea or pipeline asset. Our practical approach takes into account the systems, policies and operating philosophy of your operations. The focus is on delivering a bespoke solution that addresses the organisations key drivers, and takes into account the practical constraints of the organisation, project or operating location. As the operations mature, we can also asset with reviews and updates; to ensure that system remains relevant and to integrate improvements that will result in a reduction of cost, time and/or risk to the operation.
Intervention and Retrofit Design
Intervention and retrofit design includes design for repair, to ensure that your subsea or pipeline asset can continue to be fit for service. Our focus is to deliver bespoke engineering solutions that fit our client’s key drivers. The approach we take is highly practical and has consistently proven to deliver cost, time or risk reduction to our clients. We can provide ad-hoc, short term or long term practical engineering support to any execution phase (survey, site preparation, client representation) and can develop intervention and retrofit designs from concept through to detailed design and installation method. We take a holistic approach in ensuring that the design solution is also practical to implement and able to be inspected or monitored through life, to determine the success of intervention works and for long-term integrity assurance.
Fitness for Service Engineering
During the operational life of an asset, IMM activities will return condition reports on the subsea or pipeline asset, including reports on anomalies that have been identified. Fitness for service engineering assessment is focused on determining whether action needs to be taken to address the anomalies to maintain long term integrity of the asset. Remaining life assessments can be performed so that a proactive response can be developed to adequately monitor and maintain any anomalies that have been identified.
Life Extension Assessments
Life extension assessments, also known as design requalification assessments, comprises of a full integrity review of your subsea or pipeline system at the end of its design life; for the purpose of extending its operating life through proving fitness for continued service. The assessment is performed in accordance with international guidelines and takes a bespoke approach, depending on the current condition of your asset, its operating history and projected operating requirements. Services include technical assessment, commercial assessments and facilitation with the regulatory bodies. We can also assist with developing and revising new or existing IMM plans and procedures; to support the life extension process. For assets with little existing operating data, Atteris steps outside of the box to take practical and novel approaches with its engineering in order to demonstrate and realise your life extension requirements.
At the end of an asset’s lifecycle, the decision to suspend or abandon must be made. To facilitate the decision making process, decommissioning studies can be performed to guide your operations through the technical, commercial and regulatory requirements for either option. We can provide ad-hoc, short term or long term practical engineering support from decommissioning concept studies, engineering assessment for support of concept, decommissioning storyboards, site support, and package management for decommissioning of your subsea and pipeline projects.
CORUS 3D is an Atteris proprietary finite element analysis software used for the on-bottom stability assessment of subsea pipelines, flowlines, umbilicals and cables under wave and current loading over time. This dynamic on-bottom stability analysis software has been wholly developed by Atteris and has since been independently analysed and validated by DNV-GL. CORUS 3D is a powerful software package which has a track record of delivering reliable, robust and cost-effective engineering designs for subsea pipelines.
Abaqus FEA is a Finite Element Analysis package used for the modelling of sophisticated engineering problems involving statics, dynamics, multibody systems, impact, nonlinear statics, thermal couplings etc. The software uses integrated solver technology to achieve best-in-class results which reduces engineering time allowing for efficient processing and more time spent for analysis and optimisation.
Abaqus CFD is a Computational Fluid Dynamics package for the the modelling and assessment of nonlinear coupled fluid-thermal and fluid-structural problems. Modelling of laminar and turbulent: internal or external flows that are steady-state or transient, span a broad Reynolds number range, and involve complex geometry is all within the software’s capabilities. Atteris uses Abaqus CFD for the assessment of subsea heat exchanges to determine efficiencies in design as well as hydrodynamic coefficients for complex structures and increases in shear stress due to flow amplification.
Microstation is a 2D, 3D, CAD modelling system used for drafting and rendering of engineering design.
AutoPIPE is a piping, spool, and riser design and analysis software that incorporates the guidelines and design limits of DNV, ISO, ASME / ANSI, API and other international design codes. AutoPIPE allows for the assessment of static and dynamic stress analysis on pressurised linepipe for combinations of functional, seismic, wave, current, wind, buoyancy, and transient loadings. AutoPIPE also features the ability to model basic structural elements thus providing a more realistic boundary condition at restraints. For complex structural integration, AutoPIPE can incorporate structural models built in STAAD.Pro for further design optimisation of restraints and adjoining structures.
12D software allows for modelling of terrain, earthworks and the design of pipeline alignments and infrastructure, for engineering, construction and mapping purposes. With accurate 3D modelling, the software has capability to allow for walk through inspections of the design to identify interference during design or presentation of concepts and designs to stakeholders.
D-Geo Pipeline Std Module (M-drill)
D-Geo enables the design of trenchless pipeline installation such as micro tunneling and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD). It allows for the input of geotechnical conditions to complete soil spring models around the pipeline for analysis of arching and settlement effects on the pipeline as well as stresses in the pipeline and casings during the installation stage.
SAGE Profile 3D
SAGE Profile 3D is a powerful finite element software used for the design and analysis of subsea pipelines. The software is capable of pipeline route simulation and optimisation, simulation of the pipe-laying process, on-bottom pipeline stress calculations, prediction of lateral and upheaval (global) buckling, evaluation of internal and external forces on pipelines and free span evaluation.
PROBED allows for the conceptual design of static and dynamic engineered rock structures or berms that are used for scour protection, foundation beds, pipeline secondary stabilisation, and pipeline protection. The software allows for the inclusion of external loading on the rock structures from steady currents and oscillating currents induced by non-breaking waves. PROBED uses empirical and semi-empirical design equations based on wave height, Shields parameter, shear stress and other inputs to calculate a hydrodynamically stable D50 rock particle size. PROBED can be used in both the conceptual design of top layer rock to resist hydrodynamic loading and filter layers to protect structures from damage by the larger top layers or provide a foundation bed in weak seabed material.
Fledermaus is a 4D geo-spatial processing, mapping and pipeline routing analysis tool used to interact with large geographical datasets, and numerous data types, from bathymetry surveys. Fledermaus is used on board survey vessels to assure datasets at near realtime speeds, plan base and alternate survey scopes, and perform preliminary pipeline routing for feasibility during route surveys. Fledermaus is also used in the office environment to perform comprehensive route evaluation and selection studies which assess straight forward flat seabeds to difficult pipeline routing through geohazard like continental scarp crossings and / or debris flows. Pipeline route x,y,z data can also be exported to software for on-bottom roughness (pipeline stress) assessment leading to routing changes as required. The software is also capable of developing presentations which fly along the pipeline to assist in stakeholder engagement and route visualisation.
OrcaFlex is a 3D non-linear time domain finite element program that provides fast and accurate analysis of dynamic offshore marine systems under wave, current, and externally imposed loads including vessel motions. Orcaflex is capable of dealing with large deflections and can perform installation and in-place analysis. It is used for the analysis of risers (Steel Catenary Risers (SCRs), Hybrids, tensioned), umbilicals, flexibles, hoses, cables, moorings, towed systems (pipelines, bundles), pipelay, cable lay, through splash zone deployment, dynamic lifts, J-tube pull-ins and pull-outs, and stab and hinge simulations and more.