Campbell, D., Chamizo D., Modra, D., Jayewardene, I. (2012) “2D and 3D Physical Modelling of Current and Wave Interactions for Rock Berm Design”, Journal of Shipping and Ocean Engineering

Although empirical methods exist for the design of submerged rock berm structures, significant optimisation may be achieved through physical model testing. This paper outlines the 2D and 3D physical modelling undertaken to optimise the design berm dimensions and armour size for a berm structure require for protection of hydrocarbon pipelines. The return period conditions tested were based on combined wave orbital velocities at the bed and steady currents, which were both simulated in the MHL (Manly Hydraulics Laboratory) 2D flume. The 2D testing utilised model scales of 1:35 and 1:40 and the 3D testing utilised a scale of 1:35. In addition to optimising the rock grading, the influence of rock cover height was also investigated during the tests. Both regular waves and Pierson-Moskowitz spectra were utilised in the testing. This paper describes the test conditions and the scaling effects that would influence model results, particularity under 2D conditions. In the 3D testing the importance of accurately replicating bathymetry and an adjoining trench is discussed.

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